Consider justice, it is natural to consider acts with a view to discovering what they had in common, common nature of what is just in the acts and nothing else, this common nature costitutes the subject; plato calls this an idea or form (these ideas do not exist in minds but may be apprehended by them). particulars partake in the idea. is eternal. Universal used instead of idea. all truth involves universals, and all knowledge of truth involves acquaintance with universals

monism - there can only be one thing in the universe (Spinoza, Bradley) monadism - there are many things but they cannot interact in any way (leibniz) ^ a result of focus on non relational universals (adjective substantive) rather than eg verbs and prepositions

we cannot prove there are qualities,but we can prove there must be relations

where and when do relations exist?

the world of universals is the world of being, rigid and exact vs world of things

universals can be split to knowledge by acquaintance and description also

sensible qualities don’t need much abstraction

all a priori knowledge deals exclusively with the relation of universals

ultimate ground of science evidence inductive

‘all products of two integers which are never thought of by humans will be over 100’ truth without instance

immediate knowledge of things - > particulars -> knowledge of sense data and ourselves universals -> sensible and logical derivative knowledge of things is knowledge by description which involves acquaintance and knowledge of truths

immediate knowledge of truths may be called intruitive knowledge and truth so known may be called self evident truths derivative knowledge of truths consistent of everything we can deduce from self evident truths by the use of self evident principles of deduction

knowledge of truths has error acquaintance itself cannot be deceptive?

truth and falsehood are properties of beliefs and statements falsehood does not pertain to the property of belief itself

thought can never know when truth is obtained

truth = coherence laws of coherence cannot be applied to the laws of coherence correspondence with fact

definition must 1) allow truth to have an opposite (false) 2) make truth a property of beliefs 3) makes it a property wholly dependent iupon the relation of the beliefs to outside things

firm belief if true is called knowledge if false: error

Hegel - everything short of whole is obviously fragmentary and incapable of existing without the complement supplied by everything else. absolute idea/.complete reality