stoicism vs epicureanism in rome - stoics aspired to the represison of all emotion, epicurean to freedom from all disturbance
Zeno founded stoicism, and regarded speculation as a means to an end, which was to live in conformity with nature - the stoic idea of virtue
not yielding to natural impulse, but knowing what nature is. to this end threefold division of philosophy:
physics: teleology, diving government, universe and laws logic: discernment of true from false ethics: application of the knowledge thus gained to practical life.
stoic physics: materialism with infusion of pantheism. they do not believe in idealism, only the material universe exists. but in the material universe was a spiritual force which acted thru them. manifesting as fire soul aether ruling principle etc. thus the universe is god, of whom the popular gods are manifestations, while legends and myths are allegories. soul of man is emanation of god head to which it will later be reabsorbed. divine ruling principle makes all things work together for good, for good of the whole. highest good is consciously working with god for the common good; providence rules the universe and the soul rules man.
logic: invention of the criterian. new soul sheet of paper ready for writing. ideas and inferences tested by holding perception.
The highest good was the virtuous life. Virtue alone is happiness, and vice is unhappiness. no gradations between virtue and vice, nothing is good bit virtue, and nothing but vice is bad; talk of the Wise Man
later developed into what is preferable and what is undesirable, for those who haven’t attained perfect wisdom certain actions were proper etc, which were neither virtuous or vicious
mention difference between things which are in our power and which are not. desire and dislike, opinion and affection are within power of will, while health, wealth, honour etc aren’t. they can control the desires and affections etc, like universe is guided by divine providence
strong insistence on the unity of the universe, and on man’s duty as part of the great whole, public spirit - similar to christianity in this respect.
compare meditations to the imitation of christ.. same ideal of self control. “it should be every man’s task to overcome himself and every day be stronger tha nhimself. in withstanding of the passions standeth very peacce of heart. let us set the axe to the root, that we are being purged of our passions may have a peacable mind. to this end there must be continual self examination. if you may not continually gather thyself together, namely sometimes do it, at least once a day, the morning or the evening. in the morning purpose, in the evening discuss the manner, what thou hast been this day, in word, work and thought.
stoicism is similar but less self deprecatory
roman washes his hands of offender, christian feels sorry for them
imitation is to the writer himself
Stoic born in Ancient Rome. Otherwise there wasn’t much philosophy gwarning there. Trained to dispassion and all that.
“Why doth a little thing said or done against thee make thee sorry? It is no new thing; it is not the first, nor shall it be the last, if thou live long. At best suffer patiently, if thou canst not suffer joyously.”