• as opposed to heraclitus he reckoned that nothing changed.
  • invented metaphysics based on logic
  • whatever can be thought of or spoken must exist at all times
  • consequently there is no change since change consists in things coming into or ceasing to be
  • since words mean something they must refer to something that is there whether we talk of it or not (since language is not nonsense)
    • but actually we are using shorthand for ‘it is imagined that x is y’
    • no two people who use the same word have just the same thought in their minds
    • if a man is dead, if we know them or if we are them it’s a diferent mental process that happens when we think of them.
    • person would not say ‘i hope the first president of the united states becomes the first president of the united states’
  • there is no past, since when we recollect, the recollection occurs now, and is not identical with the event recollected (it is a description)
  • indestructability of ‘substance’ survived him