• Pitch - Sound with a Singable Musical Quality
  • Stave - The five lines
  • Octave - The interval between (and including) two notes, one having twice or half the frequency vibration of the other.

Notes

With respect to the staff:

E - Bottom line (Every Good Boy Deserves Fruit)

F - Bottom space (FACE)

Intervals

The ‘intervals’ between notes, counted in: - semitone - half tone - tone - double semitone

c -> d distance: ‘a tone’/’an interval of a second (2nd)’

c -> e distance: ‘a third’

c -> f distance: ‘a fourth’ etc

scales are a pathway through an octave, a pool of notes from which melodies can be derived

Qualities

  • Same pitch: Perfect Unison
  • Intervals which would be the same in the minor scale are ‘Perfect’ intervals
  • Otherwise they are their respective major/minor
  • Major -1 semitone = minor
  • Major -2 semitone = diminished
  • Perfect/Major +1 semitone = augmented
  • Perfect -1 semitone = diminished
  • 8 = Perfect Octave

Scales

Tonic = The starter note 5th note = dominant 7th note = leading note Diatonic scales = Always have 7 notes with some patter with 5 tones and 2 semitones

Natural Major Scale

C D E F G A B C T T S T T T S (Tone vs Semitone)

Ionian (Tone vs Semitone pattern)

Natural Minor Scale

A B C D E F G A T S T T S T T

or Aeolian Mode or Amin

Scale Modes

Depending on the tonic, the different sound is given due to the tone/semitone mix. These are ‘degrees’ of the Major scale:

To keep the pattern starting on a different note, you must resort to sharps (one semitone above and below a full note)

B->C E->F

Scales should have one of each letter, so choose X# or XF based on this.

Ionian (Major)

C D E F G T T S T T T S

Dorian

D T S T T T S T

Phrygian

E S T T T S T T

Lydian

F T T T S T T S

Mixolydian

G T T S T T S T

Aeolian (Minor)

A T S T T S T T

Locrian

B S T T S T T T

Chords

Of five notes in a scale, there are 7 semitones traversed between them to create a ‘perfect fifth.’ The two notes sound good together. e.g. A+E

7 semitones = perfect fifth 6 semitones = diminished fifth 4 semitones = major third 3 semitones = minor third

3 note chord = triad 3 note chord = perfect fifth + minor third (minor triad) or major third (major triad) 3 note chord = diminished fifth + minor third (diminished triad)

Thirds with 3-4 semitones is also good

Isolate from scales like, natural minor A C E thirds to produce Amin chord A C E = perfect fifth (A E) + minor third (C) = A Minor Triad

C Major Chords (Ionian): C maj D min E min F maj G maj A min B dim

Three Chord Trick

Tonic Triad = CMaj CEG Dominant Triad = FMaj FAD Subdominant Triad = GMaj GBD

Melody note generally exists inside the chord.

Key

Using the notes only from that scale, you are in that ‘key’

G Major - Pulls us ‘home,’ completeness or rest.

You can tell which key it’s in by the sharp patterns, generally.

Key signatures tell you which notes are going to be sharp and which flat.

C Major has no sharps and no flats. G major has one sharps D Major has two sharps (F# & C#)

Uses the cycle of fifths.

-> ## -> ### -> #### ->

(Seen at the beginning of the stave, and notes will be sharped as given)

Order of sharps:

Father Christmas Gave Dad An Electric Blanket

Leading key is a semitone above the last sharp. Or movement of fifths clockwise. Flats: Second last flat is the key note. Only one flat is F. Movement of fourths anticlockwise

(reverse flats)

‘Accidentals’ - Using notes outside of the key signature. Put a flat or sharp symbol specifically in front of thing. Or natural sign (like a little square) to cancel. Accidentals effective for the rest of the bar

Minor Keys

Collection of flats and sharps above also applies to minor. Each one gives you a major and a minor. Every minor scale is related to a major scale. The sixth degree is the degree the minor scale is build from - the relative minor. Keep the sharps, but start from the sixth degree.

Natural Harmonic minor: change the 7th degree by one semitone

6th note is the relative minor 7th degree of a scale is the leading note

Raising the 7th degree makes the natural harmonic minor (make 3 semitone gap) Natural Melodic minor: Keeps the sharpened seventh, but also raises the sixth degree. However this is not done on the way down, here it is just the natural minor in reverse.

Clefts

Treble Cleft - Bass Cleft - Low pitch Alto Cleft - Tenor Cleft -

Braces can use two staves with varying clefts to show two ranges to be played simultaneously.

there is an imaginary ‘line’ above the bass clef and one below the ledger in the treble clef. the ‘middle c’

Rhythm And Form

Time is expressed as fractions or multiples of a beat.

Rhythms are fractions are multiples of beats. Expressed in rests and notes.

Whole notes/Semibreve. One full bar in 4/4. Called 1/1. 2 Minims per Semibreve 4 Crotchets per Semibreve 8 Quavers per Semibreve 16 Semiquavers per Semibreve

There are also rests

Beams connect notes in 2-4 etc, which helps us read and understand the music.

Tuplets

Tuplets - any arbitrary division of a note. Putting a number above a beam. e.g. 3 ‘3 in the time of 2’

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Ties and Dots

Tying one note to another with a line. It means the note you are about to play and 1 and a half ‘measure’ long. Extending the duration. Dots next to the note indicate, for each one, another half length extension on the note

Out of time rest

Thing at the top over the note.

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