1. Licensor has the right to licence the work.
  2. Grant to the licensee as to the rights they have to the work.

Warranties - consequential damages

Academic licenses

  • Allow the code to be used in proprietary software
  • Do not require that open source versions of the code be distributed
  • Compatible with all forms of licence
  • Lead to the widespread commercial adoption of the programs, by incorporation into products distributed under a proprietary licence.
  • Software created as technology exploration, provide a proof-of-concept implementation and allow others to build on that work.
  • Ideal for situations in which you want wide deployment of your ideas and do not care whther this results in open source or proprietary software.

e.g. of Apache: 1. Strong branding means derived works cannot use the Apache name. 2. Standards compliance with HTTP precludes extensions.


  • Licensor surrenders all regular copyright rights.
  • The copyright licence shall be included in all copies and portions of the software.
  • No warranty.


  • Largely same as MIT
  • Distributions of original and derivative works must include the terms of the licence so that the limitations will also govern the use of the derivative work - non-endorsement, acknowledgement etc.
  • Licensor’s name cannot be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software.
  • No warranty.

Apache V1

  • Largely same as above
  • Licensor’s name cannot be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software.
  • Requires an acknowledgement of the creator’s contribution to the work being distributed.
  • No warranty.

Apache V2

  • Better definitions, covering object and source form etc.
  • Explicitly grants rights under any patent claims that may exist in the original work. Licensee is given a right royalty-free patent licence in regards to this software.
  • Contributions are under the effect of this licence, unless another specific agreement is made with the licensor.
  • No rights to trademark use other than in describing the origin of the software.
  • Explicitly permits licensee to enter into a seperate warranty arrangement for the work or derivative; this not applicable to any contributor or parent licensor.
  • Contribution vs Derivative

Academic Free Licence

  • Largely as above
  • Licensee allowed to exercise patent rights without payment so long as patent rights are held by the licensor, and the patent rights are exercised in connection with the original or derivative.

Free Software Licenses


  • Permits creation of derivative works of code, no creation of derivative licenses.
  • Three purposes:
    1. Keep software free. Any derivative works must be subject to the same licence.
    2. Software is distributed as-is and without warranty.
    3. Licensed software is to be free of restrictive patents.
  • May charge a fee for transferring a copy, and may offer warranty protection for a fee.
  • Derivations must make users aware that the derivative work is not identical to the original work, and identify those who are responsible for the changes.
  • If the program is interactive, it must print the licence upon starting.
  • Software must be distributed with the source available, including all major components (but not those which it requires to run e.g. the operating system).
  • If someone breaks the terms of the GPL, the original licensor gains all regular copyright rights if an ex-licensee breaks the terms.
  • Cannot distribute the work if you don’t accept the licence agreements. If you don’t agree to the licence then you only have regular fair use rights.
  • No further restrictions can be made.
  • Not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties.

TODO: Mozilla, LGPL